♫ “…Big in Japan ooh… the eastern sea’s so blue…” ♫
Colorado Rocky Mountains (USA) — Tuesday, January 26, 2016, 3:33 pm
[Disregard the above “blog post soundtrack”, this post was actually written while listening to Goa Trance mixes ;-)]
— Notice: ‘Expert opinions’ may diverge: DISCLAIMER —
This blogpost is not really intended as “mere entertainment,” though, even if I’ld claim otherwise, otherwise. Some of the dots that could be connected, are not per se (spelled-out-) connected for you. This is an overview of aspects that I find ‘interesting‘.
The measurable presence in Fukushima fallout of artificial neutron-activation product, radioisotope Cobalt-60, is far more significant than has been stressed by researchers and commentators, I think.
(…It’s just a thought.
Like clouds, thoughts come and go.
It’s a cobalt blue cloud, though,
with irridescent edges even,
More pink fog
and yellow rain
in the forecast…)
As you might already have noticed, ;-P … I’ve been on a wee bit of a quest to better understand what really happened in March-April 2011, and beyond, on the Fukushima Coast, Japan, and what is currently happening inside the molten-down coriums underneath the Fukushima Cauldrons of Hell.
Where exactly are all those coriums anyway, TEPCO / IAEA ?
Where exactly in the Earth’s crust underneath Japan’s Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear catastrophe site (F1)… is information that has not been shared with the public yet, that I know of.
Now almost five years after the disaster began, the official line is that they still don’t know where exactly the coriums are. All they claim to know is that, for the most part, they’re NOT in the containment vessels. At least, that’s what muon photography revealed in regards to Reactor #2: it is EMPTY (Click on image for related article about this).
In this blogpost I will rehash some Co-60-related observations (just to put it all together in 1 blog post). The Fukushima puzzle is likely to give any independent amateur researcher the cobalt blues at some point, I reckon… Cobalt-60’s significance fits into the picture somehow. How exactly I don’t know yet, but this compilation at least offers some clues. At the end I offer some additional ponderings.
In short, in this blog post:
I start out with documenting the various detections of Co-60, with bits and pieces of its possible relevance, as well as the (somewhat strange) absence from scientific literature and common media narratives (which talk of Cs-134/137 and I-131 mainly, yet rarely mention all the other significant radiosiotopes):
- Documenting Fukushima’s Cobalt Release(s): Massive releases of Co-60, not like any other nuclear accident ever before
- EURDEP: European Cobalt-60 Detections (in 2011 and beyond)
- US EPA Radnet & Cobalt-60
- Now get this: US EPA: Cobalt-60 much more associated with NUCLEAR BOMB Fallout…
- TEPCO’s very own data show strangely large amounts of Cobalt-60 in Fukushima’s waste water and debris
- More Fukushima Co-60 News, from all over
- My Very Own Co-60 Data from a Japanese kelp sample’s Gamma Spectroscopy
- Anything in my Lab-Analyzed June 2015 Colorado Rainwater.
- Co-60, a RadioIsotope BEYOND ‘FORGOTTEN’ ?
I finish the blog post with additional information:
- ADDITIONAL Cobalt-60 RELATED INFORMATION, particularly pertaining to Radiological Dispersion Devices and Extreme Neutron Flux
To offer my conclusive ponderings at the end @
… ROLLING …
Documenting Fukushima’s Cobalt Release(s): Massive releases of Co-60, not like any other nuclear accident ever before.
First, I’d like to put some folks (such as those few weird deniers, as well as belittlers, who claim that Co-60 is somehow not a, or not a significant aspect, of the Fukushima disaster’s early and continuing fallout, in their place with some solid data (from EURDEP, TEPCO themselves, Greenpeace, news reports, EPA info, academic papers, and even my own data of Japanese Kelps (2013)…
I had read in articles about Chernobyl that its fallout did not contain Co-60. (Such as found in The French IRSN (Institute de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire), “Cobalt-60 and the environment“
“[…] The atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident contains no Co-60. Consequently, this radionuclide is not responsible for any ‘environmental background’, unlike 90Sr, 137Cs and the plutonium isotopes. Its presence in the environment is therefore for the most part related to nuclear facilities. […]”)
That turned out to be incorrect. Co-60 was definitely a significant part of nuclear bomb testing. And regardless of how small the trace concentrations were, Mn-54, Nb-95 and Co-60 were in fact part of the fallout cloud from Chernobyl as well:
Following the April 26, 1986 Chornobyl disaster (about which, by the way, I had a premonition dream as an 11-year-old), Cobalt-60 was detected even in Japan and North America. However, because it was such a trace of a trace and only detected here and there, it is often not even included in the list of radioisotopes that the Chernobyl accident sent into the air.
The main Chernobyl fallout radioisotopes consisted of varying concentrations of these wicked scorcerers’ brew’s ingredients, with the more famous ones in bold:
- Strontium-89, 90
- Ruthenium-103, 106
- Iodine-131, 133, 135
- Cesium-134, 136, 137
- Cerium-141, 144
- Plutonium-238, 239, 240, 241
SOURCE: Many sources, including this table 1.5 from http://www.amfir.com/AmFirstInst/Symposia/Chernobyl/1986_Chernobyl_Nuclear_Catastrophe_index.html Screenshot:
In the same document, however, it is also mentioned that in Eastern Canada, during a Chornobyl fallout whiff that came from over the Arctic, that however-tiny-trace upticks in Berylium-7, Iron-59, Niobium-95, Manganese-54, Cobalt-60 and Zink-65 were also detected as part of the Chernobyl fallout cloud: I find that interesting, because the fallout whiffs that have been detected in Finland, even as recent as 2015, contained Mn-54, Co-60 and Nb-95 as well. They were releases “from somewhere” that can not be dismissed away as having something to do with “medical or resource exploitation” use. Not in thát mixture. They are indicative of NUCLEAR FALLOUT. And around the same time Zr-97 was also detected in Germany a few times. (See list of related blogposts shortly further below)
Regarding Berylium-7: I had assumed that upticks in Be-7 would suggest that it’s coming from higher up in the atmosphere (such as can occur during high pressure times when some air from higher up in the Be-7-rich stratosphere descends to ground level). Higher up Be-7 is made naturally through interactions with cosmic rays, but… it can ALSO be added artificially (through the same proces of high-energy neutron bombardement), thus complicating figuring out where radioisotopes may have come from that coincide with Be-7 upticks.
Now, Cobalt-60 was detected shortly after the Fukushima-Daiichi disaster began. This is solidly documented. Scrutinizing the data a little more, however, reveals that Co-60 is a véry significant aspect of Fukushima fallout and environmental contamination.
Here are many examples that document Co-60 being part of the Fukushima-Japan fallout all the way as far as Europe:
EURDEP: European Cobalt-60 Detections
Sola, Norway – You can see how data from this monitoring station is kept conceiled right after the accident until mid-April. Be-7 concentrations fluctuate normally, while Cs-134, Cs-137 and I-131 starting coming down from their pressumed late March-early April spikes:
NOT coinciding with the peaks of Cesium or Iodine, Lead-210 (decay product of Radon / Uranium, detected April 14-15), neutron-activation product Cobalt-60 was solidly detected during an April 20-26 sampling period:
This detection of Co-60 comes shortly after the spike in Cs-134, Cs-137 & I-131, etc.
This interesting and somewhat strange detail is also apparent in the data from CERN, Switzerland, shared in the previous blogpost (repeated here):
–> A zoom-in on the days surrounding the quantifiable detection of Co-60 shows that right as Co-60 was detected, the most known fallout radioisotopes, (Cs-134, I-131, and even Cs-137) were NOT detected. Hence the argument that, “if it doesn’t contain Cs-134/Cs-137, then it has nothing to do with Fukushima”, simply doesn’t hold up to scrutiny, especially when studied within a multi-week or multiple months context. Different isotopes move differently through different media (air, water, ground), and this make a case for Co-60 illustrating that:
As I’ve brought up before, it seems just purely logical that these particles and gasses do not all move the same through air, water or ground layers. There are distinct differences due to their distinct properties. And thus, it is not surprising that a detection of Kobalt-60 is TIMED just slightly DIFFERENTLY compared to the detections of Cs-134, Cs-137 & I-131, which seem to move in a much more closely correlated pattern.
If it were just one or two isolated instances of Co-60 being detected in the month after, and far beyond the March 11, 2011 F1 catastrophe, perhaps a case could be made for “coincidence”, but the fact of the matter is that Co-60 was detected in many places all across the Northern Hemisphere. In many cases, the peak time for Co-60 does not line up with peak times for radioCesiums, at least not in the data I’ve seen. More examples:
Here’s our good ol’ monitor in HELSINKI, Finland, showing a significant uptick in Co-60 at the very end of March, begin of April 2011. Right at that time Cs-137 is strangely not tested for, or data is kept undisclosed. Yet when Cs-137 spikes again that following week in April, Co-60 is not detected in a quantifiable amount:
Over a month later, disturbances are still drifting around the planet, showing upticks of various Fukushima radioisotopes. Also @ Helsinki, in the weeks prior to June 15, 2011, we see detections of Co-60 amidst upticks of Cs-137, I-131 and Be-7:
–> You can see how the peak value for Cs-137 does not coincide with the peak values for I-131 and Co-60, but it is also obvious that it is part of an apparent fallout cloud passing over during that week. In this case, the correlation with a Be-7 uptick is strong.
Pay attention to both y and x-axis. The y-axis is often adjusted to show more detail. At the moment of the strongest Co-60 detection that week, the concentrations of the other shown radioisotopes compare as such:
- Co-60: 5.13E-07 (= 0.000000513) Bq/m^3
- I-131: 7.94E-07 (= 0.000000794) Bq/m^3
- Cs-137: 1.66E-06 (= 0.00000166) Bq/m^3
- Be-7: 7.31E-03 (= 0.007.31 which is not unusual, as Be-7 is naturally just below 0.01 Bq/m^3 anyhow)
In other words, for that June 10-13, 2011 sample, the aerial concentration of Cobalt-60 was in the same order of magnitude as that of Iodine-131.
They may be technically “trace amounts”, but they seem significant trace amounts: Adding to the fascinating details, the I-131 concentration at that sample time, was just a bit less than half of that of Cs-137.
Interestingly, also, is that Cs-134 was not detected in this time period, AT THIS LOCATION. (It was picked up during that period at other locations, example below). The detection of Cs-137 @ 1.66E-06 (= 0.00000166) Bq/m^3 at the moment of the Co-60 detection is actually too low to be considered “part of the same fallout cloud”, because if we look at the Cs-137 levels at that location BEFORE Fukushima began, we see that these levels were reached quite often.
Before the Fukushima accident, in a 3-month period shortly before, Cs-137 concentrations stayed well below 0.00001 Bq/m^3:
The only significant Cs-137 detection that week, was the little spike that licked that red line in the above image, seen a couple data points before the Co-60 detection in the images before.
And what about that IODINE-131, thát late, still?
On a sidenote, one could of course also repeat the question, “what the hell was Iodine-131 still doing in the air in Europe a full 3 months after the accident began?” (Well, of course… pressuming these detections were from Fukushima…
… then that can only be explained because one of more of the molten-down reactors and/or zirconium-inferno-destroyed spent fuel pools did not stop fissioning as hoped. That’s why…
Even the IAEA folks have scratched their heads over that one; See the (bad audio, accessible via WHOI @ http://www.whoi.edu/page.do?pid=108196&cl=87413&article=141569&tid=5122), but the ENEnews transcripts are correct) admission 3 full years after the facts: “[ENEnews, Oct. 27, 2014] – Watch: Nuclear experts confront Japanese scientists — IAEA says Fukushima reactors “might still be active” long after meltdowns — “Changes completely” our idea of what happened — “Very surprised… extremely high” Iodine-131 levels — Means fission reactions lasted for weeks or months“. Or years…?
If that concerns you, also check out my post, (Nov. 20, 2015) Debunking the ‘Impossibility’ of Ongoing Criticalities at Fukushima-Daiichi, as well as my post, (May 29, 2015) Land of the Sinking Sun…
To get almost as much Iodine-131 as Cobalt-60, on the other side of the planet no less, and no significant amount of Cs-134? Hm… That gived me the impression that Co-60 might be quite significant… More examples:
Also in May-June 2011, at Kotka, Finland, just to the east of Helsinki:
–> Again, clear evidence that Co-60 was part of the Fukushima fallout clouds. About half as much Co-60 as I-131, about 1/3rd Cs-134 as Cs-137… After I-131 detections dropped down to “lower than lowest detectable”, whiffs with CO-60 in it, alongside (so-called) “Fukushima signature” Cesium-134 continued into summer 2011 at this location:
–> One of the things I gather from this is that to get insights on a moving fallout cloud, the more monitors you have, and all testing for as many specific radiosiotopes as possible, the better. One monitor may not get the whiff of Cs-134, while another may only get the I-131, or only the Co-60. Or one week will show a set of specific upticks, while the next week the mix looks distinctly different. Taken together you get an idea of what’s moving overhead and only here and there touching ground monitors.
In spring 2013, Co-60 and Nb-95:
In late August 2014, also @ Kotka in Southern Finland, we see a detection of not only Co-60, but also Co-58 (!), at the same time as a Cs-137 uptick:
–> Co-58 is interesting as well, as its half-ife is only 77 days (about 2.5 months). Its detection in the second half of August 2014 seems weird. If it’s from Fukushima, it suggests ongoing intense neutron-activations. Co-58 is normally created inside a nuclear reactor through neutron bombarment of natural Nickel. If one were to want to create pure Co-58 on purpose, threshold side-reactions would give rise to impurities, including traces of Co-57, Co-59 & Co-60 (See Production of Co-58 in a nuclear reactor under particular consideration of interfering nuclear reactions, by H. J. Lincke, Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry November 1984, Volume 87, Issue 5, pp 311-315).
But to get lots of Co-60, if not made intentionally through neutron activation of Ni-59, then it comes from the bombardment of Iron-58 (present in trace amounts in all steel), through a double neutron uptake. This is why the RPVs (Reactor Pressure Vessel) steel structure will contain significant amounts of Co-60 after decades of use.
Side-note: Co-59 can turn into Co-58 by a neutron activation reaction, followed by a double neutron release: “59Co (n,2n) 58Co”; as well as: Co-59 can turn into Co-60 by a neutron activation, followed by Co-60’s gamma decay: “59Co (n, γ ) 60Co” — Source: IAEA Activation data data @ http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/te_1285_prn/te_1285p1_prn.pdf .
To detect both at the same time, alongside a Cs-137 uptick suggests an unintentional release from a spewing meltdown site, no? As in, “Somewhere”. Fukushima? I don’t know, but… If it’s from Fukushima, this seems very serious. If it’s not Fukushima, that seems very serious.
WHERE are this recurring upticks of highly concerning radiosiotope mixtures coming from, year after year, since 2011? Not an unreasonable question to seek an answer to, in my opinion.
In Dec. 2014, a detection of Co-60 happens about a week apart from a Th-232 detection:
There more, some of which I’ve documented in these blogposts:
- Oct. 28, 2015: Detected in Helsinki Finland in October 2015: Cesium-134 & 137, Actinium-225 & 227, Cobalt-60. + Detected in Hamburg, Germany: Zirconium-97.
- June 6, 2015’s “Pink Unicorns beach themselves on the shores of Lake Dystopia“
- June 7, 2015’s Yup… Fukushima is Still Fissioning – A Nullschool Wind Data Analysis of May 2015 EURDEP-Finland/Germany Radioactive Air Samples)
- May 25, 2015: Additional Ponderings Re. Pacific Ocean Ecological Crisis. Wondering about Effects of a speculated Fukushima-induced Polonium-210 (Alpha-emitting) surge’s on Sea Life. Iodine-131, Cobalt-60, Cesium-134 & Neobium-95 detected in Europe (May 2015!)
US EPA Radnet & Cobalt-60:
If you go to my Online Radiation Monitors page and pick United States, there’s a few options under EPA. You can search the EnviroFacts database for different regions for different isotopes, via http://iaspub.epa.gov/enviro/erams_query_v2.simple_query
For Region 9 (which includes California and Hawai), the Cobalt-60 results show primarily data that suggests likely “detections,” yet of the kind than can’t be quantified with high-confidence, or even don’t qualify as a detection whatsoever (negative values, or negative values + margin of error below minimum detectable concentrations, etc.). This is just a random snapshot, to give an idea:
–> You see that that some results have values that even if you deduct the combined margin of error, the value’s in the positive. I interpret that as “a for-sure detection”. However, due to the complexity of deducting background noise, what can be called a detection in part depend on the level of certainty you want for the given value of the measurement. If you want high certainty, you’ll need a very strong signal that stands out from background signals.
So, for instance, that last shown result above, 0.666 +/- 0.318 Bq/L Co-60 in precipitation in Berkeley, CA on Sept 15, 1985, seems like a very clear detection (on the tail end of an insane spate of nuclear bomb tests), but I’m not sure what level of certainty the margin of error delineates here.
In any case, likely trace remnants from the nuclear bomb testing era, trace detections continue to show up until the early 1990s. For Berkeley, California, the testing gets sloppy, with many years of no testing, and even after March 2011, there’s nothing to be seen (no testing). Other areas show post-2010 data:
–> What you can see, however, is the widely fluctuating Minimum Detectable Concentration, with the highest MDCs in spring and summer 2011. Rather than intentional concealment, this may again be due to shorter sampling periods giving rise to a more blurry background, which would require a stronger-than-usual specific decay energy signal to ‘detect’ (with a reasonable level of confidence) the specific radioisotope.
Now, what’s also interesting is how most results are ND, Non-Detect, from those early 1990s all the way until 2011, when values (positive or negative) begin to appear again amongst the NDs, suggesting “detections” that may be too weak to be quantified, but that give nevertheless the suggestion that slight upticks in gamma energies specific to Co-60 decay were being registered above background. Why otherwise wouldn’t the result be described as ‘ND’?
–> As far as the negative values go, a simple good read:
“Reported sample results are sometimes negative values. When a sample has little radioactivity, the analytical results should have a normal distribution of positive and negative results around zero. When a sample result is subtracted from that of the system’s background and the sample value is less than that background, the result is a negative value. A negative result simply indicates that the radionuclide activity in the sample is low—so low that it approaches that of the analytical instrument’s system background.”
Now get this: US EPA: Cobalt-60 much more associated with NUCLEAR BOMB Fallout…
Far more interesting than the EPA EnviroFacts data above, are bits and pieces in more detailed studies from through searching the EPA Archives for ‘Cobalt-60 fukushima’: one result I will quote from:
“Take a deep breath”: It takes small particles YEARS to settle down. But more interestingly is the difference between fallout associated with a nuclear bomb versus fallout from a nuclear accident like Chernobyl.
So check out these excerpts (partial screenshot, annotated):
And re. a major nuclear accident, the main Chernobyl fallout compares as such:
So, to summerize the difference (my emphasis):
- BOMB Fallout: Cs-137, I-129, Sr-90, Co-60, Eu-154, Eu-152, Pu-238/240, and Am-241
- CHERNOBYL Fallout: Te-132, Cs-134, Cs-137, Mo-99, Ru-103, Ru-106, Ba-140, Zr-95, Ce-141, Ce-144, Sr-89, Sr-90
Isn’t that strange? Co-60 is not a significant part of a normal meltdown. Yet Co-60 is obviously a very significant aspect of the Fukushima nuclear catastrophe… How can this be? Why?
(More data first. It is important that the fact is estabished firmly with as much documentation as possible that the presence of CO-60 in Fukushima fallout is highly unusual. Why that might be is a whole other matter. I’ll get to that after establishing the facts more firmly first. Hang in there, reader of this blog post. You may the only person reading this. ;-) )
TEPCO’s very own data show strangely large amounts of Cobalt-60 in Fukushima’s waste water and debris:
Proof that Fukushima is releasing very significant quantities of Cobalt-60 is found throughout TEPCO’s frequent press releases. But you have to search for “Co-60” (543 results), and not “cobalt-60” (1 result). I used to think that one result was the only time TEPCO brought up Cobalt-60 and wondered if that data accidentally slipped in. (Ha. Yeah… Seeking truth can be a humbling embarassing journey at times… Joke’s on me.)
Anyhow, thát document does actually show véry high levels:
- 1.2 Bq/cm^3 Co-60 , or about 1,200 Bq/L = 1,200,000 Bq/m^3 of Co-60
- 1.9 Bq/cm^3 Mn-54
- 71 Bq/cm^3 Sb-125
A spill of 300 tons of that processed waste water contained a whopping 1,200 Bq/L Co-60.
The details of this press release: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/nu/fukushima-np/water/13082101-e.html screenshot:
100 Bq/cm3 Cs-137 + 46 Bq/cm3 Cs-134 + 1.2 Bq/cm3 Co-60…
Anyhow, so…: in that one spill some 360,000,000 Bq Co-60 was spilled. And that’s just one spill. This does not give any idea about how much is being stored in the massive water tanks, how much has been flushed out into the Pacific, how much has escaped into the atmosphere, how much is in the ground on-site, where deposition hot spots may be, etc. It’s just one tiny peek into what’s happening.
Do other tanks contain more Cobalt-60, or less, or is 1200 Bq/L a fairly average value for the Cobalt-60 water contamination concentration? Some of the additional bits and pieces of data from news reports show that it’s “in that ballpark”, basically.
In any case, Co-60 is surely just a percent, or less, of all the Cesium, Strontium, and slough of other heavy metal decay products… But it is apparently, very much unlike Chernobyl, a very significant pollutant at Fukushima. To get an idea of the mounting problem, here’s a look at the growing water tank farm:
- The Asahi Shimbun, just last September (2015) cited that the waste water storage tanks contain some 700,000 TONS of contaminated water:
If those 300 tons offer any clue, then there would be, aside from Strontium and Cesium, also be unusually amounts of Co-60, Mn-54, Sb-125 and other lesser-known radioisotopes in the mix.
More Fukushima Co-60 News, from all over :
This is undoubtedly very incomplete, but I picked a few bits and pieces of news that caught my attention from here and there, including news aggregators. I chose those that shed additional light on the fact that Cobalt-60, for reasons to be explored further, is a véry major component of Fukushima fallout. In no particular order:
- Many of the hundreds of other TEPCO press releases (which you’re free to browse until you’re delirious @ Tokyo Electric Company Press Releases, re Fukushima containing “Co-60”) give details on various detections.
Example: Nearly 3 years after the disaster started, contamination of undergound water reached record levels, @ 770 Bq/L Co-60, for instance, as relayed by ENEnews (Feb.19, 2014) “Record level of Cobalt-60 detected in groundwater at Fukushima — Hundreds of times above any measurement ever published for underground water“. Also covered @ Nuclear News.
This and many other such reports give a basic idea of the widespread Cobalt-60 presence and strangely high concentrations of this specific activation product.
- Greenpeace in August 2011 reported 0.83 Bq/kg of Co-60 found in a seaweed that originated only 30 km from Fukushima. See these Greenpeace Sample data, Page 5/6, of which this is a screenshot from Scribd mirror:
–> Manganese-54 & Cobalt-60, in an activity that is just less than 1% of the activity of the always-mentioned radioCesiums 134 & 137. No Iodine-131 was detected (<MDC) in that sample, while the reverse is true the sample 2 columns to the right (I-131 detected, while Cesium levels were actually lower, and neither Mn-54 nor Co-60 detected (<MDC).
- Another Co-60 detection by Greenpeace, I found out about via Ex-SKF, June 20, 2011: #Radiation in Japan: Greenpeace Detected Cobalt-60 and High Radiation “Hot Spots” in Fukushima City in Fukushima
Excerpt from the translation: “[…] Another thing that the survey team paid attention to was the types of nuclides that were detected in the park. They detected cesium-134, cesium-137, and cobalt-60.
Professor Kazuhiko Kudo of Kyushu University (nuclear engineering) says, “Cobalt-60 does not exist in nature. It has a half-life of 5.3 years. That cobalt-60 was detected in Fukushima City, 60 kilometers from the plant, proves that a certain amount of cobalt-60 was released from the reactor meltdown.“ […]”
The blogger was obviously surprised by this finding. The RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel), made of steel, will always contain some Cobalt-60. If the RPV were blown to smithereeens, fragements would show elevated Co-60 levels.
But was it from the RPV? You’d have to turn solid steel into rather tiny particles for them to fly 60 kilometers…
- Marco Kaltofen of the Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA., noted in APHA (Oct 31, 2011) that, “[…] Soils and settled dusts were collected from outdoor surfaces, interior surfaces, and from used children’s shoes. The Japanese filters contained cesium 134 and 137, as well as cobalt 60 at levels as high as 3 nCi total activity per sample. […]”. [3 nCi/sample = 111 Bq/sample]
- More recent: Asahi Shimbun, July 20, 2014: Water leaks continue to plague No. 5 reactor at Fukushima plant A leak of radioactive cooling water, used to cool spent fuel pools, on the 5th floor of Unit 5’s reactor building contained up to 3,000 Bq/L Co-60!
Clearly not from an exploded RPV in this case, is it?
- Iori Mochizuki’s Fukushima Diary has a couple interesting ones (he often does):
Fukushima Diary, Dec. 14, 2013: Water leakage from air-conditioning duct of reactor4, Tepco: “It’s rain water, not from SFP”, contains this: “Tepco immediately denied the possibility that the water is from SFP because it doesn’t include cobalt-60 and hydrazine. In SFP of reactor4, 2.5E+5 Bq/m3 of cobalt-60 and 3ppm of hydrazine are supposed to be contained. […]” –> 250,000 Bq/m^3 Co-60
A search for Co-60 @ Fukushima Diary resulted in 10 articles. I picked these to highlight some more peculiar data:
- Fukushima Diary, March 26, 2013: [Where from?] 1.4 billion Bq/Kg of Co-60 measured from debris attached to the new fuel in SFP4, “feels like grit”
“According to Tepco, significantly high level of Co-60 was measured from the piece of debris taken from SFP4. They measured 1,400,000,000 Bq/Kg of Co-60 (half-life 5.3 years). The surface dose was 1 mSv/h. The sample was 4g. It was taken when they washed the new fuel assembly removed from the spent fuel pool in reactor 4. (8/29/2012) Tepco states it felt like grit. Some parts were broken into sand, which couldn’t be collected.
They also collected debris from between the fuel assemblies when they removed the channel box of the new fuel from SFP4. They measured 830 million Bq/Kg of Co-60 from the piece of sample as well. […]”
- Fukushima Diary, June 9, 2013: Co-60, corrosion product detected from gas samples of reactor 1, 2 and 3:
Related to this article… (my emphasis and commentary) “Ag-110m [radioactive Silver] detected from gas sample of reactor1 and 3, “The boiling point is 2,164℃” [URL] According to Tepco, they also detected Co-60 from the gas samples of reactor 1, 2 and 3.
They state it’s “a main corrosion product made from activation of structure material”.
[Yes… but every nuclear reactor has a general similar structure as far as materials go (concrete, steel, lead, zirconium cladding, etc …), so why these extremely high levels of Co-60 at Fukushima leaking out in the water, in on-site off-gassing and carried far away through the atmosphere? ]
“From the concentrated water of reactor3, they also measured 98,000 Bq/m3 of Mn-54 (Half-life : 312 days), which is also a corrosion product. Tepco announced the corrosion products from structural material activation, Co-60 and Mn-54 are detected from retained water as well. Data:
- Reactor 1 : Co-60, 0.57 Bq/m3 from particulates filter
- Reactor 2 : Co-60, 68,000 Bq/m3 from concentrated water
- Reactor 3 : Co-60, 420,000 Bq/m3 from concentrated water
- Mn-54, 98,000 Bq/m3 from concentrated water […]”
–> The closer to the Reactor 3 / SFP 4, the higher the Co-60 concentrations??? (Just wondering…)
This next one is quite telling in regards to the importance of Co-60 at F1:
- Fukushima Diary, Oct. 14, 2014: 5 sorts of nuclide density marked the highest readings in seaside of Reactor 2 again:
“5 sorts of nuclide density reached the highest readings in a boring hole located in the seaside of Reactor 2 again. […] Those 5 sorts of nuclides are all that Tepco reports about to consist of Cs-134, Cs-137, Mn-54, Co-60 and all β nuclides“
[Note: “all β nuclides” is believed to consist to a large extent of Strontium-90 and Tritium].
!!!-> Regarding Strontium-90, see also my post (Sept. 25, 2014), Strontium-90 skyrocketing in Fukushima’s On-Site Groundwater. German meltdown model that predicted this suggests worst is yet to come.
!!!-> The US EPA suspended all testing from Tritium in precipitation in 2012! Included in my post (April 10, 2015) Fingerprints of an ongoing Cover-Up? EPA data makes Fukushima look over 1000% less serious than Chernobyl…
“Variety sorts of nuclides marked the highest density on 10/9/2014. (cf, Various nuclides density marked the highest level in groundwater from multiple locations of Fukushima plant [URL]) This is from the same boring hole and the record was already broken:
(10/9 → 10/13, Bq/m3)
- Cs-134 : 17,000,000 → 61,000,000
- Cs-137 : 51,000,000 → 190,000,000
- Co-60 : 2,100,000 → 3,600,000
- All β : 2,100,000,000 → 7,800,000,000 […]”
- (Mn-54 data was not listed in that article)”
!–> If that doesn’t drive home how extreme the Cobalt-60 aspect of the Fukushima disaster is, I don’t know what could.
What do Cobalt-60, Manganese-54 and Tritium have in common, if anything? They are all three neutron-activation products. What do you need to create massive amounts of neutron activation products? A steady stream of free neutrons. How do you get those? From nuclear fission reactions (criticalities). Were all these activation products created in March-April 2011, or are they still being produced? [crickets…]
– Related ponderings in my post (sorry for the repetition) (Nov. 20, 2015) Debunking the ‘Impossibility’ of Ongoing Criticalities at Fukushima-Daiichi
- ENEnews, Nov. 3. 2014: Food products ‘heavily contaminated’ by Fukushima found in US; Over 30,000 pCi/kg [= 1.11 Bq/kg] of cesium, also had Cobalt-60 and Antimony-124:
Dr. Metzger’s presentation on the contamination of food imports in the early days of the Fukushima accident presented at the American Chemical Society Annual Meeting in New Orleans can be found here (a Powerpoint presentation; The Co-60 mention is on page 18).
On page 17, by the way, is another interesting piece:
“The first observed food import that had observable contamination was found on March 30. One species of seafood in a Sushi import was found to be contaminated with 131I only.”
–> This adds weight to my impression that when a sample doesn’t test positive for Cs-134/Cs-137, that that DOES NOT automatically mean that “the detected radiosiotope didn’t come from the Fukushima-Daiichi disaster.”
And on that note…:
My Very Own Co-60 Data from a Japanese kelp sample’s Gamma Spectroscopy
!-> From my Jan. 19, 2014 report, SUMMARY of my ‘Independent LAB TEST RESULTS’ (Hokkaido Kelp, etc.):, with added emphasis:
This independent scientific investigation of mine was not why I went to Japan. It resulted from not knowing that seaweeds, and kelps more specifically, can contain véry high levels of Potassium, much higher than bananas or certain nuts. (All natural Potassium (K) contains a trace of K-40, to which Geiger Counters are apparently just as sensitive as to radioCesiums). For more on that see, my original reports, as well as these two blog posts:
- !!!–> January 22, 2014 – Why 150 Bq Cs-137 is health-hazardous, while 150 Bq* K-40 is RECOMMENDED for health
- !!!–> November 24, 2013 – The Dose Deception – Why 0.20 µSv/hr (from fallout) can be far more dangerous than 2.00 µSv/hr (from cosmic rays). The inverse square law for ionizing radiation illustrated.
The only reason I spent the money on those lab tests I did was because I thought is would reveal contamination that was being suppressed. I learned a lot from doing this. Mainly about Potassium (see links above). But perhaps my intuition was on to something after all. Out of the 6 kelp samples, NONE contained Cesium-134 nor even Cesium-137.
However, and perhaps this was ultimately worth all the trouble: Spectacularly, one kelp sample from Southern Hokkaido did contain 1.4 Bq/kg Cobalt-60. And, also not given any further thought at the time: Of the 3 samples I had additional tests done on, 1 of these 3 also contained an unknown Alpha-radiation source @ 132.2 Bq/Kg.
The fact remains: The high strangeness of massive quantities of Co-60 in Fukushima’s fallout and water contamination is not being reported on much. This is all the more reason to research it more.
- Important remark: WE KNOW that 1) Bomb Fallout contains more Co-60 than Nuclear Reactor Accident fallout. So how does 1.4 Bq/kg (dry) compare to detections during the height to nuclear bomb tests in the Pacific Ocean (1960s-1970s)?
Answer: It’s a relatively very significant level of contamination.
–> This document, Concentrations and Concentration Factors of Several Anthropogenic and Natural Radionuclides in Marine Vertebrates and Invertebrates from 1984 (revised, 1985), EPA 520-1-84-028, gives some specific values for liver tissues of salmon and tuna (my annotations added in red):
Which makes the following all the more odd…
Co-60, a RadioIsotope BEYOND ‘FORGOTTEN’ ?
In my last (July 11, 2015) correpondence with Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) marine biologist Ken Buesseler – [originally shared in my post, (Nov. 8, 2015) Another Round of Looking into Recent Radiological Disturbaces.], I started out with a response to another top-scientist, Georg Steinhauser, author of (2014) Fukushima’s Forgotten Radionuclides: A Review of the Understudied Radioactive Emissions), an interesting document, for sure, which Dr. Ken Buesseler referred me to.
First, most of the letter (again), then the reason I bring this up.
In response to,
“>I have replied to you before, and I’ve seen Georg Steinhauser’s detailed response last time to your concerns. I have not seen that you have considered his comments.“
Re. the Co-60 in one of my kelp samples, George believes that’s most likely from a medical dump. It’s assumed that due to the lack of Cs-134/137 in that kelp sample, that it’s not from Fukushima. I understand that train of thought, but I’m not so sure. I do not know how these isotopes maybe behave differently in air and water, or how they move through the ecosystem. I don’t exclude the possibility that the assumption that there must be Cesium in it for it to be from Fukushima is per se correct. I think this is perhaps one of those arena were lots of discoveries can still be made. Certainly not ignoring his input. It IS a possibility, and one perhaps even worth exploring. If you ever explore the area around Kubui, Hokkaido, perhaps you you find the barrels leaking with Co60? I described everything I could find about my samples in https://allegedlyapparent.wordpress.com/2014/01/19/radioisotope-analysis-hokkaido-japan-kelp-safe-radioactive-food-pacific-ocean/”
The second part in my letter,
“But what I find odd is that TEPCO never even mentioned Co60 until August 2013, with 1,200,000 Bq/m^3 Co-60 measured in water that had leaked from a “tank, which contains processed, concentrated water from which Cesium has been removed“
!–> thát first part turns out to have been INCORRECT. As stated above, TEPCO reported on Co-60 a-plenty. You just have to search for Co-60, and not Cobalt-60. But aside from that, the rest I wrote, as well as the point I made, still seems correct (added emphasis):
“See, if one of those Cesium-devoid highly polluted tanks had a huge leak, you absolutely could end up with upticks of isotopes without an uptick in Cesium. That’s one of several possibilities to end up with Co60 without Cs134, I think. I’m just sharing my thoughts. I hope you’ll consider them as well.[…]”
Why do I bring this up?
Well… Given how much evidence I’ve found, from my own samples to news reports and official data, this seems strange: Cobalt-60 is COMPLETELY LEFT UNMENTIONED, in key scientific literature on this matter.
From the abstract of, “Fukushima’s Forgotten Radionuclides: A Review of the Understudied Radioactive Emissions, by Georg Steinhauser (at that time @ Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, United States; now in Leipniz, Germany), Environ. Sci. Technol., 2014, 48 (9), pp 4649–4663; DOI: 10.1021/es405654c; Publication Date (Web): April 9, 2014; Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society”. my emphasis:
From the abstract (my emphasis added): “In environmental monitoring campaigns for anthropogenic radionuclides released in the course of the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), most focus had been on gamma-emitting radionuclides. More than 99% of the released activity was due to radionuclides of the elements Kr, Te, I, Xe, and Cs.
However, little work had been done on the monitoring of radionuclides other than 131I, 132Te, 134Cs, 136Cs, and 137Cs.
Radionuclides such as those of less volatile elements (e.g., 89Sr, 90Sr, 103Ru, 106Ru, plutonium), pure beta-emitters (3H, 14C, 35S), gaseous radionuclides (85Kr, 133Xe, 135Xe) or radionuclides with very long half-lives (e.g., 36Cl, 99Tc, 129I, some actinides such as 236U) have been understudied by comparison.
In this review, we summarize previous monitoring work on these “orphan” radionuclides in various environmental media and outline further challenges for future monitoring campaigns. Some of the understudied radionuclides are of radiological concern, others are promising tracers for environmental, geochemical processes such as oceanic mixing. Unfortunately, the shorter-lived nuclides of radioxenon, 103Ru, 89Sr and 35S will no longer exhibit detectable activities in the environment. Activity concentrations of other radionuclides such as tritium, 14C, or 85Kr will become blurred in the significant background of previous releases (nuclear explosions and previous accidents). Isotope ratios such as 240Pu/239Pu will allow for the identification of Fukushima plutonium despite the plutonium background.”
I still find it puzzling that one of the “5 sorts of nuclide density marked the highest readings in seaside of Reactor 2“, aka COBALT-60, is not even considered worthy of a mention.
Anything in my Lab-Analyzed June 2015 Colorado Rainwater?
In another round of humbling learning rounds [hence, again, my DISCLAIMER, folks, seriously: I’m just a volunteer amateur “laptop-wielding mountain dweller” blogger, with zero academic credentials. I beg you to think for yourselves. I’ve been WRONG enough to have ‘gotten a clue’ about how complex this topic gets], what began with an admitedly overly alarmist (July 6, 2015), “Gamma-Spectroscopy Results of Colorado Radioactive Freak Rain: Fukushima’s Fissioning Mini-Sun on the Edge of the Pacific Ocean is COMPLETELY OUT OF CONTROL“, was nuanced just 4 days later with, “Upon further scrutiny of the raw data, some of the radioisotopes listed as “de facto detected” may need to be scrapped”, and resulted in a far less alarming post, (Aug. 1, 2015) “Synopsis / Improved Version: ‘Mainland USA June 14 2015 Radioactive Rain & Lichen Data Revisited’. “
I my non-expert opinion, the MDC’s were simply too high to get the kind of precision data I was looking for. Not the lab’s fault, I just had to learn some things the hard (expensive) way. ;-/ I guess…
Side-note: I was going to have Dr. George Steinhauser (also very kind and professional in our communications, and at that time just north of me and in the same area as the lab I worked with last, at the Ft. Collins branch of Colorado State University in in Northern Colorado) have the rainwater sample re-tested with much múch higher precision, but -alas- things got “a little delayed” at the lab. (Otherwise… wouldn’t thát have been interesting? …)
But, as I said, ALAS: First the extremely helpful and fast-responding assistant at the lab, who had sent me the raw data before the final results were in, emailed me that, “I have resigned my position with ALS” (no clue why, but I thought it was a little strange that a customer was given this information in the midst of a testing); and then, by that time in direct correspondence with the very knowledgeable and also helpful lab manager, the sample-release delay was eventually explained to me (by the lab manager himself), when I asked why it was taking so long: “I have this on my list, but I was out all last week on emergency leave (my house burned down)“.
That was that. Shit happens… I guess. :-/ Of course, an entire 2 months after, 1) getting the sample retested was no longer in the cards (as George had moved back to Germany), and 2) any short-lived radioisotope, like I-131, would have become undetectable anyhow. End of story.
The evidence for Cobalt-60 data in my rainwater sample was weak. Other hints of Cobalt radioisotopes are less weak, but still too weak for me to find significant. The only truly notable data “of significance” (if that…) pertained mainly to Sb-124, also an activation product: Repeated from (Aug. 1, 2015) Synopsis / Improved Version: ‘Mainland USA June 14 2015 Radioactive Rain & Lichen Data Revisited’. (EXCERPT):
Antimony-124 (Sb-124), half-life: 60.2 days, fission-activation product. See it in its decay chain @ http://periodictable.com/Isotopes/051.124/index2.full.prod.html
Sb-124 in the rain sample: Yes, near-certain:
!–> One of the two measurement values is 2.5x higher than the Method Blank, outside the Method Blanks’s margin of error, ánd above MDC, and its margin of error does not go below the MDC. (The average of the two measurement values is just above both MDCs too.)
Sb-124 in the lichen sample: Yes, likely:
Sb-124 does not occur in nature, it is an activation product of Sb-123, created in heavy neutron bombardments, such as in an active nuclear reactor. It’s been linked to releases from Fukushima, see here and here, but it is generally more associated with nuclear bomb fallout (caused by the sudden massive neutron bombardment of a nuclear detonation), see here.
See more in the original reports.
–> Interesting, not? Sure, no Co-60 signal in the noise, and yet… isn’t it peculiar to detect a trace of Sb-124, which, like C0-60, is more associated with nuclear bomb fallout?
ADDITIONAL Cobalt-60 RELATED INFORMATION
- Co-60 potential use in Radiological Dispersion Devices (RDDs, aka “Dirty Bombs”)
Since the medical trade is well-regulated and there is no shortage of this medically used radiosiotope, the only reason to build a ridiculously large stockpile of Cobalt-60 would be as part of a secret weapons program.
I don’t think this was the case at Fukushima (because I think the CO-60 was released through the massive SFP4 zirconium fire, mega-blast at Unit3, and through massive neutron flux bombardment of the Fe-58 in the rubble of one or more full-on-still-fissioning meltdowns), but the available literature on RDD’s does actually contain little bit of information that actuualy could be relevant for the dispersion of Cobalt-60:
CO-60 is listed as one of a handful of radioisotopes considered ideal for use in an RDD [Radiological Dispersal Device, a.k.a. Dirty Bomb] including Cesium-137, Strontium-90, Americium-241, and Cobalt-60.” ( CIA report: Terrorist CBRN: Materials and Effects);
The beforementioned EPA document (Particle Transport of Radionuclides: a Literature Review and Summary ) goes into some details about it, including some aspects that could apply to the Fukushima disaster. Excerpts (with my emphasis):
-> that excerpt just mentioned Co-60. The below excerpts, however, contain some possible relevant information:
–> What if the explosion in Reactor 3 (the one that may have been a supercriticality, rather than a mere hydrogen explosion), what if it also caused ‘phase changes’, causing certain radioisotopes to remain airborne for longer periods?
What if Fukushima, due to its large amounts of (Highly radioactive) Spent Fuel involved, as well as MOX-fuel in use (containing a higher amount of Plutonium) was in fact a combination of 1) multiple reactor meltdowns and 2) what essentially could be viewed as “a dirty bomb” (not by design, but by consequence)?
The typical “heterogeneous patterns” of such fallout dispersion could perhaps be part of why certain radioisotopes were detected without radioCesiums present.
Anyhow, thought thats an interesting possibility.
As I wrote in early 2014, “Was Fukushima also producing (highly profitable) medical Cobalt-60 in the reactor at the time of the explosions? Was there that much neutron bombardement of steel happening in the rubble to create this much Co-60? Had it already been made for medical applications and was it being stored on site (like spent fuel rods, piling up largely unprotected, in ridiculous quantities)? Or – one never knows, right? (Fits the State Secrets Act narrative and Japan’s apparent re-militarization road map…) – could they have been researching, or even unlawfully and secretly building Cobalt Bombs?”
–> On the issue of Cobalt-60 for military uses, Tim Rifat (a controversial figure desribed as “an expert on Remote Viewing, Influencing, & Psychic warfare, among other things“) discussed his take on the significance of Cobalt-60, pre-Fukushima-disaster (radio show from 2010!), on the (and take-it-with-a-grain-of-salt) Jeff Rense Show, Sept. 22, 2010.), calling it “the perfect weapon” for opponents of NATO to use, and making various claims along those lines, all without providing any evidence. Is this just talk? Maybe there’s something to it, I don’t know. Worth a listen, though.
There’s an article, “The Never-Tested Doomsday Bomb, From Bill Hamilton, also on Rense, @ http://rense.com/general40/dooms.htm, that touches on the same idea:
“[…] The Co-60 fallout hazard is greater than the fission products from a U-238 blanket because many fission-produced isotopes have half-lives that are very short, and thus decay before the fallout settles or can be protected against by short-term sheltering; many fission-produced isotopes have very long half-lives and thus do not produce very intense radiation;the fission products are not radioactive at all. The half-life of Co-60 on the other hand is long enough to settle out before significant decay has occurred, and to make it impractical to wait out in shelters, yet is short enough that intense radiation is produced. […]”
- Massive Neutron Flux ?
Apart from the above speculation, perhaps far more likely is that Cobalt-60 was 1) released through vaporiation of the Co-60-containing reacture structure, and 2) created by massive neutron bombardment in the rubble.
This is where the mathematics of key calculations get a bit over my head. You have to be familiar with nuclear neutron cross sections (expressed in the unit, barns) and know some parameters to work with, such as:
- the amount of steel targetted with neutrons (likely unintentionally as part of the still-fissioning meltdowns in march 2011, and perhaps even ongoing, as I’ve alleged off and on over the years), and
- have an estimate of how much (total) Cobalt-60 was actually released,
- –> to calculate the likely required neutron flux to have resulted in that amount of Co-60 created.
It’s one thing to create Co-60 intentionally through directing a neutron beam to pure (natural, stable) Cobalt-59, the likelihood of creating massive quantities of Co-60 through a DOUBLE neutron uptake by Iron-58 is significanly lower. The main ingredient of steel, iron, consists of various iron isotopes, with Fe-58 only comprising 0.282% of regular iron. Steel of reactor pressure vessels become realtively rich in Co-60 only due to LONG-TERM neutron exposure. Given Co-60 was not a significant component of other nuclear accidents, my guess is that the Co-60 already present in the reactor structure is highy unlikely enough to explain the (above documented significant & global) detections of Co-60.
Therefor, a scientific case can likely be made for EXTREME neutron fluxes and extremely high heat to have occured to explain the creation of otherwise inexplicable Co-60 concentrations.
Such a case would likely be similar to the calculations made that explain highly unusual extreme levels of Chlorine-38, data of which was later redacted to “<MDC”, as documented and explained well in this article, “What Caused the High Cl-38 Radioactivity in the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor #1? 福島第一原発の１号機（タービン建屋）から検出された高濃度放射性塩素３８の原因は何か“
Screenshot of its opening (much more in artice itself):
Given Co-60’s association with Nuclear bombs, my guess is that supercriticalities truly did occur at Fukushima-Daiichi, and that this aspect is being covered-up, in part through ignoring smoking-gun evidence of this: Extremely unusual Cobalt-60 releases.
And given that very peculiar fallout clouds CONTAINING COBALT-60, hitherto unexplained, have continued to drift over the few public monitors that report this sort of data (namely a couple European monitors, which also included tiny trace whiffs of Iodine-131, and even Zirconium-97 in Germany, within 2 weeks of the Co-60 + Cs-134/I-131, etc detections), this suggests having originated from a leaking reactor or disaster site with very recent fission. If from Fukushima, still my #1 suspect due to lack of knowledge of any other major recent nuclear accident, that would mean “inadvertent transient criticalities” happened as recent as 2015.
I’ve documented some of these odd detections in many blogposts, including these from 2015:
- Oct. 28, 2015: Detected in Helsinki Finland in October 2015: Cesium-134 & 137, Actinium-225 & 227, Cobalt-60. + Detected in Hamburg, Germany: Zirconium-97.
- –> in which I pointed out the striking correlation with the previous documented whiff in June 6, 2015’s “Pink Unicorns beach themselves on the shores of Lake Dystopia“ and June 7, 2015’s Yup… Fukushima is Still Fissioning – A Nullschool Wind Data Analysis of May 2015 EURDEP-Finland/Germany Radioactive Air Samples): Finland observed I-131, Co-60, Nb-95, Ru-103, Cs-134, Cs-137 in the sample period May 22-25, 2015 (@ Kotka in the south, and @ Rovaniemi in the north), and Zr-97 was detected just 10 days prior in Northern Germany: May 12-13, 2015.
Conclusion is too strong of a word. There’s too many unknowns. But these things I feel reasonably confident about:
- Fukushima’s Cobalt-60 releases, in 2011 near & distant airborne detections, as well as ground water, cooling water, debris fragments, soil and seaweed samples, go far beyond what could have resulted from an ordinary meltdown.
- Cobalt-60 is a significant tracer for Fukushima radiological pollution. Its lack of mention and study in establishment scientific literature is suspect.
- Post-2011 atmospheric fallout detections that included Co-60, such as seen in the examples shown (including the 2 above links from 2015) suggest the possibility of ongoing criticalities at Fukushima-Daiichi. If that’s the case, then that aspect is actively being coverd up as well.
Why does this matter? Well, for starters, if it’s determined that fully-IAEA-approved, so-called “safe” reactor complexes can continue fissioning years after a meltdown, with no technology in existence to stop such a polluting mess, then ALL existing nuclear fission reactors would, as such, be proven UNSAFE. Period. My sense is that this is the case, and ALL new construction ought to be stopped immediately, and all existing still-operational reactors ought to be turned off immediately.
The nuclear cartel’s gamble’s odds may seem “reasonable”, but the worst-case scenario holds far too extreme consequences to be allowed. Period.
SHUT THEM ALL DOWN NOW !
— MAY PEACE PREVAIL ON EARTH —
Sweet dreams, everyone… ;-)
Last edited & updated: Jan. 26, 2016